Monday, 21 August 2017

National estimates of genetic testing in women with a history of breast or ovarian cancer: new report

A new report published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology provides new U.S. estimates of genetic testing in women with a history of breast or ovarian cancer.  According to cross-sectional data from three Cancer Control Modules, "up to 10% of breast and 15% of ovarian cancers are attributable to hereditable mutations."  This report thus quantifies the unmet need for genetic testing in patients with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer.

To read this report in its entirety, click here.

Source mentioned: Childers CP, Childers KK, Maggard-Gibbons M, Macinko J. National estimates of genetic testing in women with a history of breast or ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 18:JCO2017736314. [Epub ahead of print]

Friday, 18 August 2017

New genetic blood test for detecting early stage cancers

A new study conducted at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center has unveiled that a genetic blood test may aid in detecting early stage cancers.  According to Dr. Victor Velculescu, the genetic test "scans blood for DNA fragments released by cancerous tumors, [detecting] many early stage cancers without rending false positives for healthy people."

To read more about this study, click here. 

Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Researchers ID genes in mice that cause aggressive brain cancer

Researchers at Yale University have identified a specific combination of genes causing aggressive brain cancer glioblastoma in mice.  Following the assessment of more than 1,500 genetic combinations in mice, co-corresponding author Sidi Chen stated that with the human cancer gnome mapped, "we can use this information to determine which existing drugs are most likely to have therapeutic value for individual patients, a step towards personalized cancer therapy,"

To read more about this study, click here

Friday, 11 August 2017

DNA blood test screen for rare sinus cancer

Researchers at the Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences in Hong Kong have discovered that at DNA blood test can screen for nasopharyngeal cancer.  While this form of cancer is rare in the United States (with an occurrence of 1 case in every 100,000 people), it is far more common in southern China and North Africa.  Following a clinical trial conducted on more than 20,000 individuals, "the DNA test would up accurately detecting nasopharyngeal cancer 97% of the time."

To read more about this study, click here.

Thursday, 3 August 2017

Breast-feeding lowers mom's breast cancer risk

A new report published by the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) states that the risk of breast cancer is lowered by 2% per 5 months that a woman breastfeeds her child.  In addition, the report further states that "breast-fed babies are less likely to gain excess weight as they grow, which could reduce their cancer risk later in life."

To read more about this report, click here.

Gum disease may be linked to cancer risk in older women

A new study conducted at the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the State University of New York at Buffalo indicates a causal relationship between gum disease and increased cancer risk in postmenopausal women.  According to lead researcher Jean Waclawski-Wende, periodontal disease was associated with a "14% higher risk of developing any type of cancer [especially] esophageal cancer, which was more than three times more likely in older women who had gum disease..."

To read more about this study, click here.

Monday, 31 July 2017

Squamous cell carcinoma increasingly common

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is becoming more common, with dermatology experts warning the public to remain vigilant for warning signs of the disease.  According to Dr. M. Laurin Council, assistant professor of dermatology at Washington University in St. Louis, identifies several signs of possible squamous cell carcinoma, including "a pink or white bump; a rough, scaly patch; or a sore that won't heal."

To read more, click here.

Monday, 24 July 2017

Asbestos-associated genome-wide DNA methylation changes in lung cancer

An Epub ahead of print article published July 19, 2017 in the International Journal of Cancer follows up on previous studies correlating exposure to asbestos and lung cancer.  The current study, a cooperative endeavour between researchers in Finland, France, and Lithuania, reveals "distinctive DNA methylation changes" after a comparison of lung tissue from asbestos-exposed and non-exposed patients (primarily smokers).

 The abstract of this study can be found here.

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Nerlynx approved to help prevent breast cancer recurrence

The US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the drug Nerlynx (neratinib) to help prevent HER2-positive breast cancer recurrence.  According to the FDA news release, Nerlynx was administered to more than 2,800 early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer patients over a 2-year clinical trial.  Results showed that "after 2 years, 94.2% of users hadn't had their cancer recur, compared with 91.9% of those treated with an inactive placebo.

To read more about this news release, click here.

Little evidence that vasectomy raises prostate cancer risk

A new study conducted at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota finds very little evidence associating a vasectomy with an increased risk of prostate cancer.  According to the study authors, led by Dr. R. Jeffrey Karnes, 53 worldwide studies involving over 14 million men were analyzed; the overall consensus was that "there is no link between vasectomy and 'high-grade' aggressive prostate tumors", with a weak association of ~5% between a vasectomy and any form of prostate cancer.

To read more about this study, click here.

Wednesday, 12 July 2017

Parkinson's and melanoma may co-occur

Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota have unveiled a co-occurring link between Parkinson's disease and melanoma skin cancer. The study, led by Dr. Lauren Dalvin and conducted on 1,000 Parkinson's patients as well as 1,500 patients with melanoma established that individuals with Parkinson's were about 4 times more likely to develop melanoma"; the converse relationship between melanoma patients developing Parkinson's was at the same rate.

To read more about this study, click here.

Thursday, 29 June 2017

New microscope scans breast tumors during surgery

A new microscope developed by scientists and engineers at the University of Washington is touted as being able to assist surgeons in completely removing breast tumours, "reducing the number of women who must undergo repeat surgeries to remove cancer cells that were missed the first time."

According to study co-author Adam Glaser, postdoctoral fellow at the University of Washington Molecular Biophotonics Laboratory, the microscope is able to scan tumours and examine cells in 3D within 30 minutes.

To read more about this microscope, click here.

Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Childhood chemotherapy may have lasting effects on memory

A new study conducted at the University of Leuven, Belgium indicates a correlation between childhood cancer survivors who underwent chemotherapy treatment and memory problems as these children become young adults.

According to Iris Elens, psychiatrist, and Rudi D'Hooge, professor at the University of Leuven, the 31 young adults assessed in the study started receiving chemotherapy treatment at 6 years of age.  When testing 10-15 years later, "the cancer survivors had poorer thinking flexibility and short-term memory."

To read more about this study, click here.

Tuesday, 20 June 2017

Nearly 1 in 2 Canadians expected to get cancer: new Canadian Cancer Statistics 2017 report

A new report, entitled Canadian Cancer Statistics 2017, was released today by the Canadian Cancer Society in partnership with the Public Health Agency of Canada and Statistics Canada.  Latest figures indicate that  "for males, the lifetime risk (of a cancer diagnosis) is 49% and for females it is 45%."  However, the overall cancer survival rate has increased from 25% in the 1940s to approximately 60% today.

To read more about this report, click here.

Tuesday, 30 May 2017

Amy Reed, physician and patient who “moved mountains” to end widespread use of power morcellation, dies at 44

“I always wanted to be a doctor when I was little,” Reed said in 2015. “I wanted to go into medicine and be a doctor and fix things, and cure the world.”

Reed’s dream came true, albeit not in the way she envisioned.

Reed, a Pennsylvania native, died May 24 from complications stemming from disseminated uterine cancer. She was 44.

Read this true story of how the use of power morcellators should not be used for hysterectomies or fibroid removal.

Monday, 29 May 2017

WHO list of priority medical devices for cancer management

Have you checked the new priority list of medical devices for cancer management? This list also describes for six types of cancer: breast, cervical, colorectal, leukemia, lung and prostate.

Scientists report progress on genetic test for anal cancer

A new genetic test being conducted at Cancer Research U.K.may be a "less invasive method to help doctors identify people who are at a higher risk of anal cancer and avoid unnecessary procedures for those who are at a lower risk."  According to Dr. Rachel Orritt, Cancer Research U.K.'s health information officer, this study provides a stronger connection between what is known regarding cell DNA changes and cervical cancer, providing a new more definitive set of biomarkers to identify men and women at increased risk of anal cancer.

To read more about this study, click here 

Wednesday, 24 May 2017

Association of delayed adjuvant chemotherapy with survival after lung cancer surgery

A recent retrospective study of 12 473 patients with NSCLC from the National Cancer Database found that, adjuvant chemotherapy given later (57–127 days) in the postoperative period was not associated with mortality. Furthermore, patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy later had a significantly better survival when compared with patients treated with surgery alone.

Read more here.

Thursday, 18 May 2017

Eating nuts linked to improved chances of survival for colon cancer patients

2 New studies, scheduled for presentation at next month's annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) in Chicago, indicate that consumption of nuts, along with a healthy diet and regular exercise increases a colon cancer patients chances of survival.  One of the studies, funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, followed 800 patients who underwent surgery and chemotherapy for colon cancer.  These patients were followed for 7 years following completion of chemotherapy, and asked specific questions pertaining to their diet, in particular the amount of nuts consumed.  19% of patients surveyed reported eating at least 2 ounces of nuts per week, with researchers finding "both a lower risk of cancer recurrence and higher overall survival in that group."

To read more about this study, click here.

E-cigarettes linked to bladder cancer risk

A recent news release by the American Urological Association indicates that the use of e-cigarettes leads to an increased risk of bladder cancer.  According to a study conducted at the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center in Nashville, researchers found that "e-cigarettes triggered cancer-related damage to bladder tissue...[while also showing that] nicotine, nitrosamines and formaldehyde led to damage while blocking DNA repair, boosting cancer risk."

To read more about this study, click here.

Monday, 15 May 2017

Tai chi for insomnia in breast cancer survivors

A new study conducted at the UCLA Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavour in Los Angeles indicates that tai chi may help relax breast cancer survivors with insomnia.  According to study lead Dr. Michael Irwin, tai chi was seen as being more effective "than medication in treating insomnia and reducing the risk for sleep loss-related health issues, including depression, fatigue, and a weakened immune system."

To read more about this study, click here.

Therapeutic and preventive implications of moonshot in hereditary cancer syndromes

President Obama’s proposed fiscal year 2017 budget includes $1 billion for eliminating cancer. This initiative has led to the belief that concentrating on treatment is a limited approach to the overall reduction of cancer mortality, considering the success of cancer research in prevention. However, a powerful method for cancer prevention and survival has been the discipline of hereditary cancer syndromes. This article discusses the significance of investing billions of dollars in genomic sequencing and the implications of finding a hereditary mutation in patients with metastatic cancer using next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Read more here.

Friday, 12 May 2017

Hope for 1st drug against lymphedema

Researchers at the Standard University School of Medicine claim to be close to developing the first drug therapy to combat lymphedema, a a condition causing painful swollen limbs that affects many cancer patients, especially those that have undergone treatment for breast cancer.

While most of the research conducted thus far is based on results from mice and human cells, a clinical trial is in place "to see whether these lab discoveries will translate into a new lymphedema treatment."

To read more about this study, click here.

Thursday, 11 May 2017

Monday, 8 May 2017

Cervical cancer and lasting symptoms on survivors

A new study conducted at the Medical University in Vienna indicates that many survivors of cervical cancer continue to experience "mild to moderate fatigue, insomnia, and hot flashes" several years after their cancer diagnosis.  According to study author Stephanie Smet, a radiation oncology resident, the 1200 women who took part in the study were all survivors of locally advanced cervical cancer, and ranged in age from 22 - 91; 64% of these women experienced fatigue, and 43% reported insomnia.

To read more about this study, click here.

Friday, 5 May 2017

Myelodysplastic syndrome: Is it just that? The importance of obtaining an accurate family history

Up to 72 percent of adolescents with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and monosomy 7 have the GATA2 mutation. Approximately one-half of the cases of GATA2 deficiency result from a germline mutation and is heritable.

Oncology nurses and providers are in a unique position to impact these outcomes by obtaining detailed and accurate family histories to optimize treatment decisions, especially for patients with MDS and/or AML. Research has shown that GATA2 patients that undergo stem cell transplantation prior to development of life-threatening infections or cytogenetic abnormalities have better outcomes.Interventions: An accurate family history is a valuable, inexpensive, and often underused tool. Please read the latest conference abstract on the Importance of obtaining an accurate family history.

Tuesday, 2 May 2017

Clinician participation in CADTH’s pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review: contribution and impact on cancer drug funding recommendations

In any given week, media headlines publicize the benefits of a new “breakthrough” cancer drug, with patients and clinicians subsequently advocating for its use. Governments, which face the difficult task of deciding how best to allocate limited public resources, must at the same time balance ongoing commitments to provide optimal health care for Canadians and to ensure value for money and the sustainability of the Canadian health care system.

Established by the provincial and territorial ministries of health, the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pcodr) program operating within the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (cadth) is designed to bring consistency and clarity to the assessment of cancer drugs by looking at clinical and economic evidence, by taking into consideration clinician and patient perspectives, and by using that information to make recommendations to the participating jurisdictions to guide their drug funding decisions.

Read more here.

Wednesday, 26 April 2017

Health Canada has approved DARZALEX® (daratumumab) for patients with multiple myeloma who have had at least one prior therapy

TORONTO, April 17, 2017 /CNW/ - Janssen Inc. announced today that Health Canada has approved DARZALEX® (daratumumab), in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, or bortezomib and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. Due to the high unmet medical need for multiple myeloma patients, DARZALEX® was granted a Priority Review by Health Canada for this submission.

Data from two Phase 3 studies supported this new approval. They include the open-label, randomized clinical studies POLLUX (MMY3003) and CASTOR (MMY3004). POLLUX was published in The New England Journal of Medicine, with an accompanying editorial, in October 20167; and CASTOR was published in The New England Journal of Medicine in August 2016.

Studies mentioned:
Dimopoulos, M. A., Oriol, A., Nahi, H., San-Miguel, J., Bahlis, N. J., Usmani, S. Z., . . . Moreau, P. (2016). Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med, 375(14), 1319-1331. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1607751

Palumbo, A., Chanan-Khan, A., Weisel, K., Nooka, A. K., Masszi, T., Beksac, M., . . . Sonneveld, P. (2016). Daratumumab, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med, 375(8), 754-766. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1606038

Higher prostate cancer risks for black men may warrant new approach to screening

A new study indicates that higher prostate cancer death rates among black men in the US may be due to a higher risk of developing preclinical prostate cancer as well as a higher risk of that cancer progressing more quickly to advanced stages. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study suggests that screening policies may need to be tailored to the higher-risk status of this population.

Study mentioned:
"Is prostate cancer different in black men? Answers from three natural history models." Alex Tsodikov, Roman Gulati, Tiago M. de Carvalho, Eveline A. M. Heijnsdijk, Rachel A. Hunter-Merrill, Angela B. Mariotto, Harry J. de Koning, and Ruth Etzioni. CANCER; Published Online: April 24, 2017 (DOI: 10.1002/cncr.30687).
URL Upon Publication.

Monday, 24 April 2017

Malaria parasite could treat cancer

A new study being conducted at the University of British Columbia indicates that a malaria parasite may be able to treat bladder cancer in patients who do not respond favourably to traditional chemotherapy.  According to Mads Daugaard, professor of urologic science, the treatment, "utilizing a combination of malaria protein with a marine sponge toxin" has proven to be 80% effective on mice tested.  While considerable more testing is required on humans, this new finding does bring hope, as bladder cancer kills more than 2,000 Canadians each year.

To read more about the study, click here: